Domnall Ua Lochlainn (died 1121) and Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn (died 1166) were of this dynasty. Its name derives from the Irish language Cúige Uladh (pronounced "Kooi-gah UH-loo"), meaning "fifth of the Ulaidh", named for the ancient inhabitants of the region. In the 1947 Sinn Féin Funds case, a co-defendant was cited as "the Attorney General of Eire" in the High and Supreme Court cases, and there were similar cases where "Eire" was used in the late 1940s as a descriptor of the state in English. Éire Nua, or "New Ireland", was a proposal supported by the Provisional IRA and Sinn Féin during the 1970s and early 1980s for a federal United Ireland.The proposal was particularly associated with the Dublin-based leadership group centred on Ruairí Ó Brádaigh and … . In the latter part of the century, Belfast briefly overtook Dublin as the island's largest city. It is a member of the European Union. Salary levels are the lowest on the island of Ireland. In the early 20th century, moves towards Irish self-rule were opposed by many Ulster Protestants, sparking the Home Rule Crisis. Protestants, including some Presbyterians, who in some parts of the province had come to identify with the Roman Catholic community, used violence to intimidate Roman Catholics who tried to enter the linen trade. Low-level violence, however, continued in Ulster, causing Michael Collins in the south to order a boycott of Northern products in protest at attacks on the Nationalist community there. The Irish word for someone or something from Ulster is Ultach, and this can be found in the surnames MacNulty, MacAnulty, and Nulty, which all derive from Mac an Ultaigh, meaning ’son of the Ulsterman’. This allowed the English Crown to plant Ulster with more loyal English and Scottish planters, a process which began in earnest in 1610. This movement also set up the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). Elle se compose de six des neuf comtés de la province irlandaise d'Ulster. The etymology of Ériu is disputed but may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root * h2uer, referring to flowing water. ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-1, 19 February 2010, which gives "Ulster" as the official English name and "Ulaidh" as the official Irish name of the province, citing "Ordnance Survey Office, Dublin 1993" as its source –, "Community Background", 2011 Census, for NI, and "Religion", 2011 Census, for RoI, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Gaelic Football is by far the most popular of the GAA sports in Ulster but hurling is also played, especially in Antrim, Armagh, Derry, and Down. In 1798 the United Irishmen, led by Henry Joy McCracken, launched a rebellion in Ulster, mostly supported by Presbyterians. Hugh O'Doherty, a Sinn Féin politician, was elected mayor of Derry at this time. It was allegedly the largest battle ever fought on the island of Ireland, and resulted in the death of Congal and the retreat of Domhnall Brecc. The other major Ulster team in the League of Ireland is Finn Harps of Ballybofey, County Donegal. The longest river in the British Isles, the Shannon, rises at the Shannon Pot in County Cavan with underground tributaries from County Fermanagh. When Derry City F.C. For the constituent country of the UK, see, Traditional province in the north of Ireland, Republicanism, rebellion and communal strife, Industrialisation, Home Rule and partition. [1] This suggests a descent from the Proto-Indo-European reconstruction *piHwerjon-, likely related to the adjectival stem *piHwer- (cf. The Grand Alliance was a cross-denominational alliance designed to stop French eastward colonialist expansion under Louis XIV, with whom King James II was allied. Anomalously, Derry City F.C. "Éire" is used on the Seal of the President of Ireland. There have been cup competitions between I.F.A. Ireland (Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] ()), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern side of the island.Around 40% of the country's population of 4.9 million people resides in the Greater Dublin Area. Three Ulster counties – Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan – form part of the Republic of Ireland. Según los partidarios de Éire Nua, la formación de parlamentos provinciales con autoridades de autogobierono habría sido un buen método de conservar el statu quo dominante de protestantes en el Ulster pero sin mantener la división de la isla, ni dejar a los católicos del Ulster como ciudadanos de segunda. This Proto-Celtic form became *Īweriū in Proto-Goidelic. [44] However, religious sectarianism in politics has largely disappeared from the rest of the Republic of Ireland. The Plantation of Ulster (Irish: Plandáil Uladh) was the organised colonisation (or plantation) of Ulster by people from Great Britain (especially Presbyterians from Scotland). L'Irlande gaélique (en irlandais : Éire Ghaelach) était l'ordre politique et social gaélique et la culture associée, qui existait en Irlande depuis l'époque préhistorique jusqu'au début du XVII e siècle [1]. William Sherard (1659–1728) was the first biologist in Ulster.[45][46]. At the start of the war, Irish Jacobites controlled most of Ireland for James II, with the exception of the Williamite strongholds at Derry and at Enniskillen in Ulster. The main mountain ranges are the Mournes, Sperrins, Croaghgorms and Derryveagh Mountains. From January 2007, the Irish government nameplates at meetings of the European Union have borne both Éire and Ireland, following the adoption of Irish as a working language of the European Union. In 637, the Battle of Moira, known archaically as the Battle of Magh Rath, was fought by the Gaelic High King of Ireland Domhnall II against his foster son King Congal Cáech of Ulster, supported by his ally Domhnall the Freckled (Domhnall Brecc) of Dalriada. 82 of 1958.[15][16]. It relies on circumstantial evidence including DNA results, naming patterns and patterns of emigration to the United States and Canada. [citation needed]. [22] Ireland's postal code system is known as Eircode. Kentucky, north-central Texas, and many other areas in the Southern US) are largely the areas where many Scots-Irish settled, and are in complementary distribution with the areas which most heavily report Scots-Irish ancestry. The Ulster Hockey Union organises field hockey in the province and contributes substantially to the all-island hockey team.[48]. County Donegal is largely a Roman Catholic county, but with a large Protestant minority. The Circuit of Ireland Rally is an annual automobile rally held in Ulster since 1931. However, for the purposes of ISO 3166-2, Ulster is used to refer to the three counties of Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan only, which are given country sub-division code "IE-U". The Williamites based in Enniskillen defeated another Jacobite army at the battle of Newtownbutler on 28 July 1689. These refugees' linguistic influence still survives in the dialects of Irish spoken in Mayo, which have many similarities to Ulster Irish not found elsewhere in Connacht. Přesto většina lidí říká Severnímu Irsku Ulster. Hay nueve condados en la provincia. According to the Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, 400,000 people in the US were of Irish birth or ancestry in 1790 when the first US Census counted 3,100,000 white Americans. Oral Answers. Erin derives from Éirinn, the Irish dative case of Éire, which has replaced the nominative case in Déise Irish and some non-standard sub-dialects elsewhere, in Scottish Gaelic (where the usual word for Ireland is Èirinn) and Manx (like Irish and Scottish Gaelic, a Goidelic Celtic language), where the word is spelled "Nerin," with the initial n- probably representing a fossilisation of the preposition in/an "in" (cf. – Motor Identification Letters", "Ceisteanna —Questions. The Ulaidh were a group of tribes who dwelt in the region. From 1938 to 1962 it was marked "EIR", short for Éire. Classic editor History Talk (0) Share. The Irish name, Cúige Uladh, means the ’province of the Ulaid’ (Ulaidh in modern Irish), with the term cúige formerly referring to a fifth. Ulster Irish (Irish: Canúint Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr Erse) is the variety of Irish spoken in the province of Ulster.It "occupies a central position in the Gaelic world made up of Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man". There is also Donegal Airport (Irish: Aerfort Dhún na nGall), popularly known as Carrickfinn Airport, which is located in The Rosses. ", Eire (Confirmation of Agreements) Act 1938, "Dáil Éireann – Volume 119 - 22 March, 1950 – Ceisteanna—Questions. The war provided Protestant loyalists with the iconic victories of the Siege of Derry, the Battle of the Boyne (1 July 1690) and the Battle of Aughrim (12 July 1691), all of which the Orange Order commemorate each year. After the Norman invasion of Ireland in the twelfth century, the east of the province fell by conquest to Norman barons, first De Courcy (died 1219), then Hugh de Lacy (1176–1243), who founded the Earldom of Ulster based on the modern counties of Antrim and Down. [11] Lough Neagh, in the east, is the largest lake in the British Isles, while Lough Erne in the west is one of its largest lake networks. [24], This article is about the Irish language name of both the island and the state called "Ireland", or sometimes (mistakenly) 'Southern Ireland', in English. This is a prevailing typographical convention and is common to several European languages, including French. (See Larne gunrunning). [20], Founded in 1937, the Eire Society of Boston is an influential Irish-American group. The term Ulster has no official function for local government purposes in either country. At present (August 2007) County Donegal sends six T.D. The reply from the Minister for Posts and Telegraphs was:[17]. Golf is, however, by far the most high-profile sport and the sport that Ulster has succeeded at more than any other. Irish in Éirinn, Scottish an Èirinn/ann an Èirinn "in Ireland"). This was illustrated when Erskine H. Childers, a Church of Ireland member and Teachta Dála (TD, a member of the lower house of the National Parliament) who had represented Monaghan, won election as President after having served as a long-term minister under Fianna Fáil Taoisigh Éamon de Valera, Seán Lemass and Jack Lynch. When Irish-language texts were printed in Gaelic type, diacritics were retained on upper-case letters as for lower-case letters. In the 1790s many Roman Catholics and Presbyterians, in opposition to Anglican domination and inspired by the American and French revolutions joined together in the United Irishmen movement. In the ensuing wars (1641–1653, fought against the background of civil war in England, Scotland and Ireland), Ulster became a battleground between the Colonialists and the native Irish. The province's main airport is Belfast International Airport (popularly called Aldergrove Airport), which is located at Aldergrove, 11.5 miles northwest of Belfast near Antrim. All land owned by Irish chieftains, the Ó Neills and Ó Donnells (along with those of their supporters), who fought against the English Crown in the Nine Years War, were confiscated and used to settle the colonists. The historic Great Northern Railway of Ireland connected them. All parties knew that this was certain to be the choice of the Ulster Unionists who had a majority in the parliament, and immediately on the creation of the Free State they resolved to leave it. Local government in Northern Ireland is today demarcated by 11 districts. Loyalist militias, primarily Anglicans, also used violence against the United Irishmen and against Roman Catholic and Protestant republicans throughout the province. In the First Dáil, which was elected in late 1918, Prof. Eoin Mac Néill served as the Sinn Féin T.D. oversees the sport in the Republic. Ulster (irisch Cúige Uladh [ˈkuːgʲ ˈʊɫə] oder Ulaidh [ˈʊɫə]) ist neben Connacht, Leinster und Munster eine Region und frühere Provinz im Norden Irlands, deren Einwohner Ulter genannt wurden. The only major Orange Order march in the Republic of Ireland takes place every July in the village of Rossnowlagh, near Ballyshannon, in the south of County Donegal. The province's early story extends further back than written records and survives mainly in legends such as the Ulster Cycle. [12], In 1922–1938 the international plate on Irish cars was "SE". [2] It is highly likely that explorers borrowed and modified this term. For the Irish State, see, Irish language name of the island of Ireland and the country of the same name, SI 269 of 1961:"...the letters EIR are used to indicate the name of the State but the letters IRL may be substituted therefor. oversees the sport in N.I., while the Football Association of Ireland (the F.A.I.) Northern Ireland is often referred to as Ulster,[20] despite including only six of Ulster's nine counties. The inflow of Protestant settlers and migrants also led to bouts of sectarian violence with Catholics, notably during the 1641 rebellion and the Armagh disturbances. But the British authorities swiftly put down the rebellion and employed severe repression after the fighting had ended. Its rulers resisted English encroachment but were defeated in the Nine Years' War (1594–1603). Before the 1937 Constitution, "Saorstát Éireann" (the Irish name of the Irish Free State) was generally used.[11]. In the United States Census, 2000, 4.3 million Americans claimed Scots-Irish ancestry. Antrim (in Irish "Aontroim", in Ulster-Scots "Coonty Entrim") is one of six counties of Northern Ireland, which means it is a part of the United Kingdom.The county of Antrim is around 1,176 square miles (3,046 square kilometers) in size and home to a population of about 618,000. The Counties Tyrconnell, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Cavan, Coleraine and Armagh comprised the official Colony. [17][18] The minister stated, "The word on the stamp ... does not mean 'eire' and it is not understood to mean 'eire' by anybody except Davern. p. 113, Byrne, Francis John, Irish kings and high-kings, Batsford, 1987. The Scots-Irish soon became the dominant culture of the Appalachians from Pennsylvania to Georgia. Peuplée de 1 810 863 habitants d'après le recensement du Royaume-Uni de 2011, elle rep… The war was partly due to a dispute over who was the rightful claimant to the British Throne, and thus the supreme monarch of the nascent British Empire. Unlike the other provinces, Ulster has a high percentage of Protestants, making up almost half of its population. It is named after the overkingdom of Ulaid, in the east of the province, which was in turn named after the Ulaid folk. Saor Éire (IPA: [s̪ˠɯɾˠ eːɾʲə] / [s̪ˠiːɾˠ eːɾʲə], meaning Free Ireland) was a far-left political organisation established in September 1931 by communist -leaning members of the Irish Republican Army, with the backing of the IRA leadership. The Cenél nEógain would make Tír Eóghain (most of which forms modern County Tyrone) their base. In response, Irish republicans created the Irish Volunteers, part of which became the forerunner of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) – to seek to ensure the passing of the Home Rule Bill. Irish politician Bernard Commons TD suggested to the Dáil in 1950 that the government examine "the tourist identification plate bearing the letters EIR ... with a view to the adoption of identification letters more readily associated with this country by foreigners". Ireland has historically been divided into four provinces: Connacht, Leinster, Munster and Ulster. At the 1948 Summer Olympics in London the organisers insisted that the Irish team march under the banner "Eire" notwithstanding that every other team was marching according to what their name was in English. for Londonderry City. The county is divided into two constituencies: Donegal North-East and Donegal South-West, each with three T.D.'s. Het gebied is genoemd naar de Ulaid, de túath die het rond het begin van onze jaartelling beheerste. This article is about the nine-county province of Ireland. Northern Ireland's current politics originate from these late 19th century disputes over Home Rule that would have devolved some powers of government to Ireland, and which Ulster Protestants usually opposed—fearing for their religious rights calling it "Rome Rule" in an autonomous Roman Catholic-dominated Ireland and also not trusting politicians from the agrarian south and west to support the more industrial economy of Ulster. In responses to the 2001 census in Northern Ireland 10% of the population had "some knowledge of Irish"[27] and 4.7% could "speak, read, write and understand" Irish. The genitive case, Éireann (e.g. Avant l'invasion normande de 1169, l'Irlande gaélique comprenait toute l'île.Par la suite, il comprenait les parties du pays n'étant pas sous domination étrangère. Éire (Irish: [ˈeːɾʲə] (listen)) is Irish for "Ireland", the name of an island and a sovereign state. The Orange Order freely organises in counties Donegal, Cavan and Monaghan, with several Orange parades taking place throughout County Donegal each year. In 1646, an Irish army under command by Owen Roe O'Neill (Irish: Eoghan Ruadh Ó Néill) inflicted a defeat on a Scottish Covenanter army at Benburb in County Tyrone, but the native Irish forces failed to follow up their victory and the war lapsed into stalemate. [4] The Constitution's English-language preamble also describes the population as "We, the people of Éire". According to historian Francis John Byrne the Ulaid 'possibly still ruled directly in Louth as far as the Boyne in the early seventh century'[31] when Congal Cáech made a bid for the kingship of Tara. After the Norman invasion of Ireland in the 12th century, eastern Ulster was conquered by the Anglo-Normans and became the Earldom of Ulster. Ulaidh has historically been anglicised as Ulagh or Ullagh[17] and Latinised as Ulidia or Ultonia. It was then that the provinces of Ailech, Airgialla, and Ulaidh would all merge largely into what would become the modern province of Ulster. stair na hÉireann "the history of Ireland, Ireland's history"), is found in the Gaelic forms of the titles of companies and institutions in Ireland e.g. Sanskrit pīvan, pīvarī and pīvara that could be related to Hindu goddess Parvati and Persian parvar(پروار) meaning "fat, full, abounding"). Counties shaded in grey are in the Republic of Ireland. In the 1690s, Scottish Presbyterians became a majority in Ulster, due to a large influx of them into the Province. Ulster (irsky Uladh) je historická provincie (irské království) na severovýchodě Irska.Větší část Ulsteru je jako takzvané Severní Irsko součástí Spojeného království, menší část náleží k Irské republice.Toto rozdělení Ulsteru pochází z roku 1920 a od roku 1922 je mezinárodní hranicí. [35] However, most of the counties, including the most heavily colonised Counties Antrim and Down, were privately colonised. L'Ulster /ylstɛʁ/a (en anglais : /ˈɞlstə(ɹ)/b ; en irlandais : Ulaidh /ˈulˠəi/c / Cúige Uladhd /ˈkuːɟə ˈulˠə/c ; en scots d'Ulster : Ulstèr ; en latin : Ultonia) est l'une des quatre provinces historiques de l'île d'Irlande. [32][33][34] These counties, though not officially designated as subject to Plantation, had suffered violent depopulation during the previous wars and proved attractive to Private Colonialists from nearby Britain. Six Ulster counties became Northern Ireland, a self-governing territory within the United Kingdom, while the rest of Ireland became the Irish Free State, now the Republic of Ireland. The O'Donnells ruled over Tír Chonaill (most of modern County Donegal) in West Ulster. Many of them settled in northern Connacht. It is made up of nine counties: six of these constitute Northern Ireland (a part of the United Kingdom); the remaining three are in the Republic of Ireland. Roman Catholics (descended from the indigenous Irish) and Presbyterians (mainly descended from Scottish colonists) both suffered discrimination under the Penal Laws, which gave full political rights only to Anglican Protestants (mostly descended from English settlers). [14] It has also been suggested to have derived from Uladh plus the Norse suffix ster (meaning place), which was common in the Shetland Islands and Norway.[15][16]. As of 2017[update], Northern Ireland has seven Roman Catholic members of parliament, all members of Sinn Féin (of a total of 18 from the whole of Northern Ireland) in the British House of Commons at Westminster; and the other three counties have one Protestant T.D. The archaeology of Ulster, formerly called Ulandia, gives examples of "ritual enclosures", such as the "Giant's Ring" near Belfast, which is an earth bank about 590 feet (180 m) in diameter and 15 feet (4.5 m) high, in the centre of which there is a dolmen.[30]. This group (founded in Belfast) dedicated itself to founding a non-sectarian and independent Irish republic. The IRA remained relatively quiescent in Ulster, with the exception of the south Armagh area, where Frank Aiken led it. [19] The 1938 Act was repealed in 1981, and in 1996 a British journalist described Eire as "now an oddity rarely used, an out-of-date reference". The modern Irish Éire evolved from the Old Irish word Ériu, which was the name of a Gaelic goddess. In Rugby union, the professional rugby team representing the province and the IRFU Ulster Branch, Ulster Rugby, compete in the Pro14 along with teams from Wales, Scotland, Italy, South Africa and the other Irish Provinces (Leinster, Munster and Connacht). Ulster Ulster (Iers-Gaelisch: Cúige Uladh) is een van de vier oorspronkelijke provincies van Ierland. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, 200,000 Irishmen, both Southern and Northern, of all religious sects volunteered to serve in the British Army. English is taught in all schools in the province; Irish (Gaeilge) is taught in all schools in the counties that are part of the Republic, and in schools in Northern Ireland, almost exclusively in the Roman Catholic and Irish-medium sectors. Forty years later, in 1688–1691, the Williamite War was fought, the belligerents of which were the Williamites and Jacobites. Author (and US Senator) Jim Webb puts forth a thesis in his book Born Fighting to suggest that the character traits he ascribes to the Scots-Irish such as loyalty to kin, mistrust of governmental authority, and a propensity to bear arms, helped shape the American identity. There was some uncertainty about whether the síneadh fada (acute accent) should be written on upper-case letters. Ulster (/ˈʌlstər/; Irish: Ulaidh [ˈʊlˠəi] or Cúige Uladh [ˌkuːɟə ˈʊlˠə]; Ulster Scots: Ulstèr[5][6][7] or Ulster)[8][9][10] is one of the four traditional Irish provinces, in the north of Ireland. Ériu is generally believed to have been the matron goddess of Ireland, a goddess of sovereignty, or simply a goddess of the land. The border has divided association football teams since 1921. English is the main language and Ulster English the main dialect. Across the nine counties, according to the aggregate UK 2011 Census for Northern Ireland, and the ROI 2011 Census for counties Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan, there is a Roman Catholic majority over Protestant of 50.8% to 42.7%.[24]. The Williamites' victory in this war ensured British rule in Ireland for over 200 years. Éire Nua y el gobierno del Ulster. Hay nueve condados en … About half of Ulster's population lives in counties Antrim and Down. Úlster (en irlandés, Ulaidh, pronunciado ; en inglés, Ulster, pronunciado [ˈʌlstəɹ]) es una de las «provincias históricas» de la isla de Irlanda. Dissatisfaction with this led to the Irish War of Independence, which formally ceased on 11 July 1921. In 1938 the British government provided in the Eire (Confirmation of Agreements) Act 1938 that British legislation would henceforth refer to the Irish Free State as "Eire" (but not as "Ireland"). Ireland, also known as the Republic of Ireland is a European country on the island of Ireland. Hurling teams play in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship, National Hurling League and All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling Championship. Counties). In early medieval Ireland, a branch of the Northern Uí Néill, the Cenél nEógain of the province of Ailech, gradually eroded the territory of the province of Ulaidh until it lay east of the River Bann. Bernd Biege. The efforts to attract colonists from England and Scotland to the Ulster Plantation were considerably affected by the existence of British colonies in the Americas, which served as a more attractive destination for many potential emigrants. Es bestand aus neun historischen Grafschaften (engl. During his exploration of northwest Europe (circa 320 BC), Pytheas of Massilia called the island Ierne (written Ἰέρνη). The fighting in Ulster during the Irish War of Independence generally took the form of street battles between Protestants and Roman Catholics in the city of Belfast. Belfast became famous in this period for its huge dockyards and shipbuilding – and notably for the construction of the RMS Titanic. [40][41] However, James II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution, and the majority of Ulster Colonialists (Williamites) backed William of Orange. Belfast to Bangor and Belfast to Lisburn are strategically the most important routes on the network with the greatest number of passengers and largest profit margins. [22][23] Most Irish nationalists object to the use of Ulster in this context. Downshire Bridge Crossing the bay to Murlough, Cattle near Six Road Ends Seen from the Kirkistown to Ballyeaseborough Road. Sectarian divisions in Ulster became hardened into the political categories of unionist (supporters of the Union with Britain; mostly, but not exclusively, Protestant) and nationalist (advocates of repeal of the 1800 Act of Union, usually, though not exclusively, Roman Catholic). The biggest lake in the British Isles, Lough Neagh, lies in eastern Ulster. Noel Davern asked in the Dáil in 1974 why Irish stamps had EIRE rather than ÉIRE. In Gaelic games (which include Gaelic football and hurling), Ulster counties play the Ulster Senior Football Championship and Ulster Senior Hurling Championship. The Gaelic leaders of Ulster, the O'Neills and O'Donnells, finding their power under English suzerainty limited, decamped en masse in 1607 (the Flight of the Earls) to Roman Catholic Europe. A lot of IRA activity also took place at this time in County Donegal and the City of Derry, where one of the main Republican leaders was Peadar O'Donnell. The Socialist Republic of Eire and Ulster (Irish: Poblacht Shóisialach na hÉireann agus Uladh) also known as SR Eire and Ulster, or simply SR Ireland. The City of Derry Airport is located at Eglinton, 13 kilometres (8 mi) east of the city of Derry. This did not announce its findings until 1925, when the line was again drawn around six of Ulster's nine counties, with no change from the partition of 1920. Electorally, voting in the six Northern Ireland counties of Ulster tends to follow religious or sectarian lines; noticeable religious demarcation does not exist in the South Ulster counties of Cavan and Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland. Generally, Protestants in Donegal vote for the political party Fine Gael ("Family of the Irish"). In 1961 statutory instrument no. The origin of Ériu has been traced to the Proto-Celtic reconstruction *Φīwerjon-(nominative singular Φīwerjū < Pre-Proto-Celtic -jō). [12] The name is also used by various organisations such as cultural and sporting bodies. Polish is the third most common language. Initially after 1937 the United Kingdom insisted on using only the name "Eire" and refused to accept the name "Ireland". Following the Anglo Irish treaty, the exact border between the new dominion of the Irish Free State and the future Northern Ireland, if it chose to opt out, was to be decided by the Irish Boundary Commission. To the west of Ireland is the Atlantic Ocean; to the east of Ireland, across the Irish Sea, is the island of Great Britain.Over 6.4 million people lived on the island in 2016. King James I then colonised Ulster with English-speaking Protestant settlers from Great Britain, in the Plantation of Ulster. Despite the fact that Article 8 designated Irish as the "national" and "first official" language, Éire has to some extent passed out of everyday conversation and literature, and the state is referred to as Ireland or its equivalent in all other languages. clubs, most recently the Setanta Sports Cup. (2004) Protestants and the Irish Language: Historical Heritage and Current Attitudes in Northern Ireland",, Wars and Conflicts – Plantation of Ulster – English and Scottish Planters – 1641 Rebellion,, "The Future's Bright For Donegal's Orangemen", "Ireland hockey: Seven Ulster players in squad for Olympic qualifier against Canada", Census 2011 – Ulster Irish language stats, "Inconvenient Peripheries: Ethnic Identity and the United Kingdom Estate",, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles needing additional references from October 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2016, Articles needing additional references from March 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 18:10.

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