Long ago, over 200 carved stone pillars, carefully arranged in tightly packed circles, stood proudly on the hill of Göbekli Tepe in southeastern Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). Schmidt also engaged in speculation regarding the belief systems of the groups that created Göbekli Tepe, based on comparisons with other shrines and settlements. At the western edge of the hill, a lionlike figure was found. Digging deeper, the archaeologists unearthed more pillars, decorated with elaborately carved figures. Since its discovery, however, surface surveys have shown that several hills in the greater area also have 'T'-shaped stone pillars (e.g. Four such circular structures have been unearthed so far. [60], The assumption that the site was strictly cultic in purpose and not inhabited has been challenged as well by the suggestion that the structures served as large communal houses, "similar in some ways to the large plank houses of the Northwest Coast of North America with their impressive house posts and totem poles. Read more. Having found similar structures at Nevalı Çori, he recognized the possibility that the rocks and slabs were prehistoric. İnsanlık Tarihi İçin Neden Bu Kadar Önemlidir? [3] The tell (artificial mound) has a height of 15 m (50 ft) and is about 300 m (1,000 ft) in diameter. Traditional scholars have long maintained that the development of sophisticated human society was contingent on the transition from a hunter-gatherer to agrarian way of life. Erika Qasim: "The T-shaped monuments of Gobekli Tepe: Posture of the Arms". Located in Turkey, Gobekli Tepe is a vast Stone Temple building. 8 Mart 2019 tarihinde de Göbekli Tepe’nin önemini anlatan bir konuşma ile “Göbekli Tepe Yılı”nı açtı. [37] Layer II is assigned to Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB). 12–25. 4. [30], At the western escarpment, a small cave has been discovered in which a small relief depicting a bovid was found. There are no comparable monumental complexes from its time. Au sud-ouest se trouve la ville de Şanlıurfa. This ancient temple is thought to be more than 10.000 years old. Göbekli Tepe: The Worlds First Temple January 19, 2019 Julia Penelope Patheos Explore the world's faith through different perspectives on religion and spirituality! Dr. Kodaş and his team of archaeologists discovered that the 11,000 year-old temple walls were made of rubble and held in place with a hardened clay base, but they haven’t yet reached the base of the structure. Klaus Schmidt (2009) "Göbekli Tepe – Eine Beschreibung der wichtigsten Befunde erstellt nach den Arbeiten der Grabungsteams der Jahre 1995–2007"; Dietrich, Oliver. Read another story from us: This Year’s European Capital of Culture is Also its Oldest City – Take a Tour. Some of the floors in this, the oldest, layer are made of terrazzo (burnt lime); others are bedrock from which pedestals to hold the large pair of central pillars were carved in high relief. He presumed shamanic practices and suggested that the T-shaped pillars represent human forms, perhaps ancestors, whereas he saw a fully articulated belief in deities as not developing until later, in Mesopotamia, that was associated with extensive temples and palaces. vladimir.krivochurov@mail.ru: Main. Göbekli Tepe is one of the world’s most significant, yet mysterious, archaeological sites. Structures identified with the succeeding period, Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), have been dated to the 10th millennium BCE. Loincloths appear on the lower half of a few pillars. (ed. Entry costs 45 TL. there are no depictions of hunting raids or wounded animals, and the pillar carvings generally ignore game on which the society depended, such as deer, in favour of formidable creatures such as lions, snakes, spiders, and scorpions. [citation needed]. All of the animal bones excavated came from local game, predominately gazelle, boar, sheep, deer and wild fowl, which suggests that the people who made and used the site were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Continuing the naming pattern, it is called "complex E". [13], The site was first noted in a survey conducted by Istanbul University and the University of Chicago in 1963. draperha wrote a review Nov 2020. [49] It is apparent that the animal and other images give no indication of organized violence, i.e. A preliminary Report on the 1995–1999 Excavations. Bunun üzerine Cumhurbaşkanı Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, AKP Grup Toplantısında “2019’u Göbekli Tepe Yılı” ilan edildiğini açıkladı. In: K. Schmidt: "Zuerst kam der Tempel, dann die Stadt." What makes Gobeklitepe unique in its class is the date it was built, which is roughly twelve thousand years ago, circa 10,000 BC. Göbekli Tepe est un site préhistorique du Mésolithique, situé dans la province de Şanlıurfa, au sud-est de l’Anatolie, en Turquie, près de la frontière avec la Syrie. and numerous Nemrik points, Helwan-points, and Aswad-points dominate the backfill's lithic inventory. Until his death in 2014, Schmidt remained convinced that it was an important religious temple, and his view is supported by the elaborate carvings on the pillars. that the elevated location may have functioned as a spiritual center during 10,000 BCE or earlier, essentially, at the very end of the Pleistocene. The site was abandoned after the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB). [5] Vultures also feature prominently in the iconography of Çatalhöyük and Jericho. [2] Es handelt sich um einen durch wiederholte Besiedlung entstandenen Hügel (Tell) mit einer Höhe von 15 Metern und einem Durchmesser von rund 300 Metern. Pillar 2 from Enclosure A (Layer III) with low reliefs of what are believed to be a bull, fox, and crane. List of archaeological sites by continent and age, "Göbeklitepe Neyi Saklıyor? The details of the structure's function remain a mystery. [11] The pillars weigh 10–20 metric tons (10–20 long tons; 11–22 short tons), with one still in the quarry weighing 50 tons. Andrew Curry, "Göbekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple?". Excavations at Gobekli Tepe point to the possibility that the builders of Gobekli Tepe may have been the Native inhabitants, the Denisovans or the Anunnaki Ancient Astronaut Aliens.. The pattern is an equilateral triangle that connects enclosures A, B, and D. This means that the people who built Göbekli Tepe had at least some rudimentary knowledge of geometry. View of excavations at Göbekli Tepe site. Ian Hodder of Stanford University said, "Göbekli Tepe changes everything. [14] American archaeologist Peter Benedict identified lithics collected from the surface of the site as belonging to the Aceramic Neolithic,[15] but mistook stone slabs (the upper parts of the T-shaped pillars) for grave markers, postulating that the prehistoric phase was overlain by a Byzantine cemetery. [28] It is unclear, on the other hand, how to classify three phallic depictions from the surface of the southern plateau. Göbekli Tepe est un site préhistorique occupé aux X e et IX e millénaires av. Alternatively, they could have served as totems. ", "Göbekli Tepe: A Neolithic Site in Southwestern Anatolia", "World's Oldest Monument to Receive a Multi-Million Dollar Investment", "Göbekli Tepe: Nomination for Inclusion on the World Heritage List", "Turkey: Conservation, not excavation, focus in Gobeklitepe", "Establishing a Radiocarbon Sequence for Göbekli Tepe. [dubious – discuss] The inhabitants are presumed to have been hunters and gatherers who nevertheless lived in villages for at least part of the year. Some of the T-shaped pillars have human arms carved on their lower half, however, suggesting to site excavator Schmidt that they are intended to represent the bodies of stylized humans (or perhaps deities). “Göbekli Tepe is regarded by some as an archaeological discovery of the greatest importance since it could profoundly change the understanding of a crucial stage in the development of human society. Heun et al., "Site of Einkorn Wheat Domestication Identified by DNA Fingerprinting", K. Schmidt 2000: "Zuerst kam der Tempel, dann die Stadt.". Der Göbekli Tepe (deutsch bauchiger Hügel, kurdisch Xirabreşk) ist ein prähistorischer Fundort 15 Kilometer nordöstlich der südostanatolischen Stadt Şanlıurfa in der Türkei. Photo by Teomancimit CC BY-SA 3.0. Many animal and even human bones have been identified in the fill. "GHF – Göbekli Tepe – Turkey", globalheritagefund.org, web: "GHF – Gobekli Tepe, Turkey – Overview"; globalheritagefund.org: RIR-Klaus Schmidt-Göbekli Tepe-The Worlds Oldest Temple? Their study of the three oldest stone enclosures at Göbekli Tepe has revealed a hidden geometric pattern, specifically an equilateral triangle, underlying … In addition to its large dimensions, the side-by-side existence of multiple pillar shrines makes the location unique. According to Smithsonian Magazine, Göbekli Tepe was first discovered in 1994 by Klaus Schmidt of the German Archaeological Institute. Although this theory has been challenged by archaeologists and anthropologists in recent decades, the discovery of Göbekli Tepe finally provides hard evidence to support an alternative point of view. [62], Future plans include construction of a museum and converting the environs into an archaeological park, in the hope that this will help preserve the site in the state in which it was discovered. ): "Vor 12.000 Jahren in Anatolien. The Ua samples come from pedogenic carbonate coatings on pillars and only indicate the time after the site was abandoned – the terminus ante quem.[22]. Credit: Göbekli Tepe Project. Also, an older layer at Gobekli features some related sculptures portraying animals on human heads.[40]. [38] Several T-pillars up to 1.5 meters tall occupy the center of the rooms. [66][67], archaeological and UNESCO World Heritage Site. Ein Forschungsbericht zum präkeramischen Neolithikum Obermesopotamiens". Whether the circles were provided with a roof is uncertain. These possibly are related to a square building in the neighbourhood, of which only the foundation is preserved. 2009, p. 188. [12][dubious – discuss], Around the beginning of the 8th millennium BCE Göbekli Tepe lost its importance. [5][50][51] Expanding on Schmidt's interpretation that round enclosures could represent sanctuaries, Gheorghiu's semiotic interpretation reads the Göbekli Tepe iconography as a cosmogonic map that would have related the local community to the surrounding landscape and the cosmos. Gobekli Tepe’s design and age have captured the public’s imagination for decades. [27] Several quarries where round workpieces had been produced were identified. Smithsonian magazine noted that Göbekli Tepe (sometimes written as “gobekli tepe” or “göbekli tepe”) predates Stonehenge by 6,000 years and “upends the conventional view of the rise of civilization.” The site is regarded as early evidence of prehistoric worship, featuring unmistakable temples and stunningly carved stone monoliths. ", "A sanctuary, or so fair a house? Early Neolithic religion and economic change". These immense standing stones were arranged in circles and would have supported additional huge stone blocks, some of which weighed more than 10 tons. At 12000 years, Gobekli Tepe is the oldest known stone ruins whose builders are unknown. [43] Zooarchaeological analysis shows that gazelle were only seasonally present in the region, suggesting that events such as rituals and feasts were likely timed to occur during periods when game availability was at its peak. Vorläufiger Bericht zu den Grabungen am Göbekli Tepe und am Gürcütepe 1995–1999. It is the only relief found in this cave. ", "Göbekli Tepe – the Stone Age Sanctuaries: New results of ongoing excavations with a special focus on sculptures and high reliefs,", Göbekli Tepe preservation project summary, "Tepe Telegrams: News & Notes from the Göbekli Tepe Research Staff", "World's oldest temple probably built to worship the dog star, Sirius", "7,000 years older than Stonehenge: the site that stunned archaeologists", "Cereal Processing at Early Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, Southeastern Turkey", "Turkey: Archeological Dig Reshaping Human History", Buzzwords, Bogeymen, and Banalities of Pseudoarchaeology: Göbekli Tepe, Chelae on the Asian coast of the Bosphorus, Chelae on the European coast of the Bosphorus, Stone circles, lines and tombs near the Monastery of Saint Moses the Abyssinian, "The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Göbekli_Tepe&oldid=995950073, Archaeological sites in Southeastern Anatolia, Archaeological sites of prehistoric Anatolia, Buildings and structures in Şanlıurfa Province, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with disputed statements from December 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2020, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Wikipedia articles containing unlinked shortened footnotes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (ed. Göbekli Tepe is a prehistoric, man-made megalithic hill site in today’s southeast Turkey which is riddled with walled circular and rectangular enclosures lined by and surrounding T-shaped monolithic pillars proposed to represent supernatural humanoid beings. A pair decorated with fierce-looking lions is the rationale for the name "lion pillar building" by which their enclosure is known. Photo by Zhengan CC BY-SA 4.0. [1] Er liegt auf dem mit 750 Meter höchsten Punkt der langgestreckten Bergkette von Germuş. Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological site found in the southeast of Turkey. The slabs were transported from bedrock pits located approximately 100 metres (330 ft) from the hilltop, with workers using flint points to cut through the limestone bedrock.[32]. It was excavated by the German Archaeological Institute and has been submerged by the Atatürk Dam since 1992. The magnificent megaliths and T-shaped pillars, some of which are up to 5.50 meters tall at Göbekli Tepe have long fascinated scientists and many consider the site to be home of the world's oldest temple. The oldest temple in the world, Göbekli Tepe. However, the complex was not simply abandoned and forgotten to be gradually destroyed by the elements. [63], In 2010, Global Heritage Fund (GHF) announced it will undertake a multi-year conservation program to preserve Göbekli Tepe. ", "Which came first, monumental building projects or farming? Pillar with the sculpture of a fox. Göbekli Tepe follows a geometric pattern. [5] Schmidt continued to direct excavations at the site on behalf of the Şanlıurfa Museum and the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) until his death in 2014. [64], The stated goals of the GHF Göbekli Tepe project are to support the preparation of a site management and conservation plan, construction of a shelter over the exposed archaeological features, training community members in guiding and conservation, and helping Turkish authorities secure UNESCO World Heritage Site designation for GT. Each pillar has a height of up to 6 m (20 ft) and weighs up to 10 tons. The discovery of Göbekli Tepe has major implications for our understanding of the way in which early human societies developed. Le toponyme turc Göbekli Tepe signifie « Colline en forme de ventre », en référence à sa forme. K. Schmidt in Schmidt (ed.) More than 200 pillars in about 20 circles are known (as of May 2020) through geophysical surveys. Radiocarbon dating the first temples of mankind. It is estimated that it might take at least a month to reach into the sacred building’s foundations. Yet the site was constructed in 9,500 BC, thousands of years before the development of written language and agriculture, and well before human beings began to develop permanent settlements and cities. Indeed, according to Smithsonian Magazine, in the 1,000 years following the construction of the temple, permanent settlements do appear in other parts of Anatolia and northern Syria, providing some of the earliest evidence for the cultivation of wheat crops and the domestication of cattle. Welcome to the presentation of the The World’s First Temple, Gobeklitepe … a pre-historic site, about 15 km away from the city of Sanliurfa, Southeastern Turkiye. It is the shallowest, but accounts for the longest stretch of time. The roughly contemporary architecture at Jericho is devoid of artistic merit or large-scale sculpture, and Çatalhöyük, perhaps the most famous Anatolian Neolithic village, was built 2,000 years later. [29], At this early stage of the site's history, circular compounds or temene first appear. He began excavations the following year and soon unearthed the first of the huge T-shaped pillars. The site could also have been used as a place for political gatherings or cultural celebrations, but Schmidt argued that it was more likely to have been a burial place for renowned hunters. The site was deliberately backfilled sometime after 8000 BCE: the buildings were buried under debris, mostly flint gravel, stone tools, and animal bones. In an interview with Andrew Curry for Smithsonian Magazine, Schmidt explained that it didn’t take his team long to uncover the first series of stone megaliths, close to the surface.

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